Definitions

There are as many opinion as there are horse people !!! and accordingly The HORSE HAS SOME POSITIVE RESPONSES for every one ALWAYS. Yes always. Regardless of what you do, the horse still will show you some ” improvement ” ( horse makes every one happy, that’s a horse issue you don’t understand !!! ) even though this “improvement” may be a real problem and multiple problems come from that original problem usually and makes the happiness of that “improvement” fleeting and temporary with the consequence of keeping the level of the game low and increasing training time for ever.
That is why it is not easy for a rider or a horse trainer or an instructor or a judge or a spectator … to have a clear assessment about deferent aspects of this sport and that is one of the reasons that takes years and years of practice for any of them to just get a better sensation about the job.

To solve this problem I avoid to be drowned by common fuzzy comments based on sensation and nominal evidence that you never know when and how does it work and for who and what case.

I would choose scientific methods and try to explain any aspect of this sport with the concept of the actual evidence based on physics that is clear and effective for every one and any case always plus with the advantage of minimizing training time.

Here are the common terms in alphabetic sequence that are used to explain different aspects of this sport with a definition based on physics.

Accord:
Is the result of the horse’s ability to operate as the signal requires.

Accepting the bridle:
Is judged by the posture of horse’s head and neck and jowl.

Active:
Is the result of maximizing of the supporting phase forces of the legs.

Attentiveness:
Is judged by how much the horse expects the signal(s) to follow.

Balanced step:
Is the result of horse’s ability to step without being have to Change direction of her/his centre of gravity or travel/velocity.

Balanced forelegs:
Is when forelegs are used equally to support a portion of the horse’s weight that requires to have the horse’s spine straight from the top view (at halt or at walk or rein back) when one hind leg is suspended.

Balanced hind legs:
Is when hind legs are used equally to support all or a portion of the horse’s weight that requires to have the horse’s spine straight from the top view (at halt or at walk or rein back or at take off for a big jump) when one foreleg is suspended.

Balanced legs:
Is the result of horse’s ability to distribute her/his weight equally between 1 hind leg and 2 forelegs or vice versa or 1 hind leg and 1 foreleg in a beat/step by shifting her/his centre of gravity (hcg back and/or swinging the hind leg(s) more forward underneath her/his body.

Balanced mentally:
Is the result of horse’s ability to meet mental fitness factors (calmness, confident, willing) for the operation.

Balanced movement:
Is a movement with balanced strides.

Balanced stride:
Is a stride with balanced beats/steps.

Cadenced:

Is the result of horse’s ability to operate Balance, Harmonious in Impulsion, Regular and Rhythmic.

Calmness:
Is the result of operating without any anxiety about the rider’s actions and / or the surrounding atmosphere.

Collection:
Is the result of horse’s ability for closing HIP joints, using STIFLE joints, arching up BACK and LOIN to swing HIND LEGS more underneath her/his body increasing “th” (more than 45′).

Confident:
Is the result of how much the horse is adopted to the operation without expecting any hard time as a consequence of her / his operation.

Contact:
Is the result of following the horse’s mouth movement by the rider’s hands.

Ease:
Is the result of maximizing the improvement of the horse’s abilities more than is needed to operate.

Engagement:

Is the result of maximizing the supporting phase forces of the hind legs

Extension:
Is the result of the horse’s ability to lengthen her / his stride.

Flexible:
Is the result of the horse’s ability to convert different postures to each other.

Freedom:
Is the result of utilization of horse’s abilities as much as is necessary to operate without restriction.

Good hock action:
Is the result of horse’s ability to close her / his hock joints enough at starting period of the sup. and opening them quicker and stronger at the next periods of the sup. .

Harmonious:
Is the result of using the limbs with not restraining each other but supporting.

Impulsion:
Is the result of vertical element of horse’s velocity that is the result of COLLECTIOn, GOOD HOCK ACTION and LIGHTNESS OF THE FORELEGS.

Keen:
Is judged by how much quick the horse responds to the signal.

Lightness:

Is the result of maximizing the suspension phase time of the legs and minimizing their supporting phase time

Lightness of forelegs:
Is the result horse’s ability to minimize supporting phase time ( sup.t ) of forelegs and maximizing their suspension phase time ( sus.t ) by approaching the neck to its vertical.

Loose:
Is the result of minimum utilization of muscles to operate.

Momentum of the horse:
is the affect of horse’s mass and velocity together = horse’s mass multiple velocity.

No hesitation:
Is judged by how much the horse is cleared about the rider’s signals and how quick reacts to them.

No resistance:
Is the result of horse’s ability to minimize the time between receiving a signal and following it.

Precision:
Is judged by how much the horse follows the signal(s) in de tale of her / his operation while minimizing spending her / his effort in un requested ways.

Regularity:
Is the result of operating with repeating the similar paces.

Rhythmic movement:
Is the result of repeating the same stride with an even and clear segregation time between them to move.

Submission:
Is the result of horse’s ability to follow the rider’s (hands ) signals.

Suppleness:
Is the result of the horse’s ability to operate in different POSTURE.

Sustained:
Is the result of maximizing performing time with the same quality.

Tenseness:

Is the result of utilizing unnecessary and / or extra muscles and / or overusing necessary muscles to operate.

Throw angle of the horse ( tH ):
Is the angle that horse is thrown to move / travel in each beat of a pace.

Throw angle of the horse’s hind leg ( th):
Is the angle of an imaginary straight line extending from hind leg hoof print to the horse’s centre of gravity and horizon.

Unconstrained:
Is the result of horse’s ability to operate with minimum signals and / or maximum self carriage.

Understanding rider:
Is judged by how much the horse puts effort just to show the result to the rider’s signal(s).

United canter:
Is as the result of horse’s ability to operate with identical balanced steps at canter.

Velocity of the horse:
Is the amount of distance that horse’s centre of gravity (hcg travels in one unit of the time ( it is considered by metre per minute by FEI ).

Willing:

Is the result of horse’s ability to operate as her / his routine job.

FEI definitions

Movements of a horse :

The Halt:

The Walk:

Collected walk
Medium walk
Extended walk
Free walk
The Trot:

Collected trot
Working trot
Medium trot
Extended trot
The Canter:

Collected canter
Working canter
Medium canter
Extended canter
Counter canter
Simple change of the leg at canter
Flying change of the leg or chang of the leg in the air
The Rein Back:

The Transitions:

The half halt:

The changes of direction:

The figures:

Volte
Serpentine
Figure of eight
Work on 2 tracks/The Lateral Movements:
Leg yielding: Leg yield – diagonal —— Leg yield – rail
Shoulder in
Travers
Renvers
Half pass
The Pirouette:

The half-pirouette :

The Passage:

The Piaffe:

Definition on Common problems of horse’s performances:

Horse’s mouth :
1) Above the bit:

Head too High
Nose front of vertical
Action of the bit is ineffective
Horse is unbalanced
Horse is hollow-back
2) Behind the bit:

Head draws back from the bit
Nose behind the vertical line
3) Grinding Teeth:

Being upset
Being excited
Nearly resistant
4) Head up:

Above the bit
5) Leaning on the bit:

Relaying on the rider’s hand.
6) Not accepting the hand:

Resistant in mouth during contact
Opening the mouth.
Tongue hanging out.
Tongue over the bit.
Tossing the head

7) Off the bit:

Horse alters the head position.
8) On the hand:

Same as No: 5
9) Over the bit:

Over bent
Horse is on the forehand
Horse is leaning on the ride’s hand.
10) Tongue hanging out:

The tongue hangs out of the side of the mouth .

11) Tongue over the bit:

The tongue is over the bit(s) instead of being under bit(s)
The Horse’s Head and Neck:
1) Head is up

Horse comes above the bit.
2) Neck too short

3) Not lowering the neck enough

At free-reins walk the horse instead of stretching her/his neck out and down does the opposite
4) Over bent

Horse is too much bent at the poll.
Nose is behind the vertical.
5) Tipping or tilting head

Horse’s head is not on the vertically
6) Unsteady head

No steadiness of the head and neck carriage:
The Horse’s forehand (Head, Neck, Shoulders and Forelegs):
1) Down in front (On the forehand)

2) Not enough angle

At Shoulder-in, Travers, Renvers, Half pass.
3) On the forehand

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s